ARTG106_IntroPart2_Lecture

ARTG106_IntroPart2_Lecture

  10 Oct 2019   , ,


This is the second half of the Intro to
Typography lecture for the beginning graphic design class, and in this lecture
we will continue to explore the history of typography and how it affects written
communication today. So where we left off, the Industrial Revolution and Machine Age
drove an immense amount of innovation as well as commerce. For the first time
goods were mass-produced resulting in the need to sell products. This created
the need for advertising and branding. This also led to the creation of new
typefaces. For the first time typefaces were existing in environments that were
not just about reading. It was no longer Bibles and manuscripts and books,
suddenly there were posters and play bills and flyers and elements of
packaging that needed to connect with the audience, that needed to potentially
yell across a room. And we saw typography like this. We saw for the first time slab
serif typefaces, we saw the wide use of sans-serif typefaces. We see a lot of
display oriented typefaces appear, things like shaded and tuscan typefaces. We see
a lot of settings like this in the Victorian Era where there’s lots of
mixing of type, to really try to grab someone’s attention. This really starts
with Vincent Figgins, he lived and worked in England and during the time he was
alive Hiroshige would have been painting some of his work in Japan. And
Figgins is really credited as creating and inventing the slab serif style of
typeface, and that’s what we’re seeing on the right with “mankind”, or the sample
from Figgins on the left and that’s where the serifs are really enlarged.
They’re made into these rectangular slabs that really call attention to them. They
become these design elements within the typeface and their goal is really to
attract attention and to create an even bolder letter form. In some ways this was
an evolution of the fat face which is what you’re seeing at the top with
“furniture”, where they took the modern and really increased that contrast and
created this boldness in the thicks that made it very eye-catching, this was
really pioneered by Robert Thorn. This is David Berlow’s Giza that was done for
Font Bureau. This is a typeface that really referenced and looked at Figgins
and other people’s work from the beginning of slab serif typography. Sometimes slab serifs are also called Egyptians or antiques. The word Egyptian really
comes from the fact that during this time period Egypt was very in vogue, it
was very popular culturally so they decided to attribute
this word to this style of typeface to try to jump on that bandwagon and create
some interest behind slab serif typefaces. Here’s an example of some fat
face typography, so you can see very clearly those large large thicks contrasted
with those thin thins. So this evolution of a modern where it’s taken to this
really playful way. It’s no longer about it being readable, it’s really for more
eye-catching, loud typography. During this era we also see for the first time
condensed and extended typefaces. This is a specimen from Deberny and Peignot
from Paris, and it’s an example of a condensed modern. But we can really see
those condensed letterforms how they’re elongated, and this really came out of a
necessity that if letter forms were condensed words could be larger on a
page which would make them easier to be seen. So again, a lot of these developments, a lot of these advancements are really being driven from advertising.
They’re really being driven from this new demand to suddenly let people know
about products and things and events. Here’s a diagram from Rob Roy Kelly, he’s
a wood type historian that lived in Texas. And it’s a great diagram that
shows some of the different serifs that came up in the slab serif era. So we look
at the top going from left to right we see on the very left that antique or
that traditional slab serif with that 90 degree angle, that enlarged brick like
slab. And then one to the right we see that there’s a cutting happening so on
that interior 90 degree angle, it’s actually being cut and rounded. We
actually refer to this as bracketing in typography and when we bracket a slab
serif it becomes a Clarendon, so it’s another type of slab serif and what’s
interesting is a lot of these slab serif typefaces were actually made in wood and
that made it very easy to modify these typefaces. So at times they might take
the typeface on the left, and then make that circular cut on the interior and
turn it into a Clarendon style typeface. In the same, that third from the left we
can see there that they’ve cut that slab off at an angle to create this
triangular serif, and we refer to that as a Latin or a Latin style slab serif. So
they have these triangular pointy serifs. And then on the far right we have the
tuscans, which is a genre of slab serif typography that are very ornamental. They
have these very decorative serifs that are cut in multiple ways. If we look down
at the very bottom you can see that they even bifurcate, which is where that serif
splits apart and becomes two separate pieces, so that’s often something we also
see in Tuscans. But again these are all of the different permutations and
different modifications, and different styles of slabs serifs that appeared
during this era. And that really drove this kind of work, because there was all
this experimentation, because there are all of these different kinds of
typefaces we actually had this mixing or where they would blend all these
different kinds of typefaces together so that it would become this catch-all.
Because again the idea here was that if we use all these different typefaces,
there’s all these different voices, and there’s a lot of things to grab the
viewer. And it’s not too far off from the work of the futurists where they worked like this with setting type at different sizes and mixing different
typefaces, but more here to create type as image. They explored a lot of onomatopoeia, they worked a lot with poetry, setting type in interesting shapes and
directions. They really wanted the type to feel like the content, and again I
cover this because I feel this is so important for what we do. This is really
the beginning of us as graphic designers and our seeking of creating type as
image, and creating meaning that does justice to what the words are saying, and
so this all influenced and created a lot of different kinds of typography and
different styles of setting type that really evolved into the basis of our
profession. Then we have William Morris, he lived in the United Kingdom and he
lived there from 1834 and died in 1896. Van Gough would have been painting
during his lifetime. He was one of the leaders of the Arts and Crafts
movement and he predominately ran the Kelmscott press which was a very notable
press and he created this which is Golden Type and it was something he
created specifically for Kelmscott Press. And his idea was he wanted to go
back to the work of Jensen but he wanted to actually retain the spreading in the
darkness of the letter forms. Because if we look back at the specimen of
Jensen we’re really looking here at ink on paper, and when the type hits the
paper and creates that impression there is a slight amount of spreading where we
get this thickening or this blurriness of the letterforms. And especially this
long ago the technology of printing and ink and
paper were not as sophisticated as they are today so that was even exaggerated
based on the kinds of tools that existed. So a lot of people like Robert Slimbach,
that we see on the right, when they do a revival would go and look at the letter
forms and maybe try to find their purest form. To try to imagine what the punches
would have looked like or the actual metal type itself. But here William
Morris has done something completely different, he’s actually decided to keep
the spreading and the darkness. He’s chosen it as a narrative or a stylistic
quality that he really wanted to keep in the typography. So even though printing
is much more sophisticated and paper is much better quality at this point, he’s
purposefully retaining that darkness for a certain stylistic effect. So again
that’s just an interesting contrast to what most revivals up to this point have
been. Then we have Morris Fuller Benton, we’re finally in the United States and
he’s one of the most notable American typographers. During his lifetime Klimt
would have been painting. He was extremely prolific and one of the most
influential early American typographers. He worked for the American Type Foundry
and created many typefaces that we still see today, like new Century Schoolbook,
Morris Sans, Franklin Gothic, and ITC Souvenir. One of his most notable
typefaces is Franklin Gothic and it was released in 1904. He did many sans-serif
grotesque oriented typefaces but this is one of his best it was incredibly popular in the United States and is still used extensively
today. It comes in a range of weights and styles and his featured often in
editorial work. Frederic Goudy was another influential American typographer. He also
created typefaces for the American Type Foundry and invented typefaces such as
Copperplate, cuts of Trajan, and many typefaces named after himself. Here’s
some of his work. One of his most notable releases is Goudy Old Style. It was
released by the American Type Foundry in 1915. It was one of their most successful releases ever, it’s a typeface that you can
still use today. Then we have Edward Johnston, he worked and lived in England.
He was a notable calligrapher and one of the masters of his time. He often
explored the boundaries of calligraphy and did extensive research on the
rationalization of letterforms. He often looked at how letterforms should be
constructed, and did some research in sans-serif typography and the
construction models that should be used by calligraphy pens. But he’s most famous
for being hired by the London Transport Authority to create the typeface for
London’s underground transportation system often times referred to as the
Underground. This is his work that he did for the London Transport Authority. It
resulted in this geometric monolinear typeface that was really ahead of its
time. It had incredible precision and high quality that was a product of
Johnston’s amazing calligraphic background. Here’s a revival of the
typeface that tries to do it justice, but it’s really known for its geometry these
round forms and square and triangular shapes. It has a rationality to it and a
monolinear structure that makes it feel very perfect. There are many other typefaces like this, notably Gill Sans which was designed by Eric Gill and was
somebody that worked under Edward Johnson. Then we see work like this,
this is modular typography done by De Stijl at the top and the Bauhaus at the
bottom. This was where the structure of the typography and the way it was made
directed the look of the type. So the actual limitations that are being placed
on these letterforms in terms of how the shapes can be used and what kinds of
shapes can be used are actually ultimately determining the aesthetic
quality of how these letters look. At the top where there’s different rectangular
shapes that are being strung together to spell De Stijl. It has a blocky and
stencil look to it and that’s really a result of the way that the letterforms
are being constructed. Or the bottom this piece by Theo Van Doesburg where they’re
only allowing horizontal and vertical lines to be used, which restricts the way
that these letterforms have to be constructed and ultimately creates
strong unity and this modular aesthetic. We saw this pushed even further here by
Herbert Bayer he was a student of the Bauhaus and in 1925 he was hired to
create a typeface for the Bauhaus. It’s called Universal
Alphabet and you can see the influence of that modularity. These circular
structures that are put into as many of the letterforms as possible, and so this
use of modularity in all of these different kinds of ways really drove the
evolution and the discovery of new styles of letterforms. Then we have a
very important advancement when Paul Renner released Futura in 1927. This
typeface was much desired at the time. Designers were really looking for
something that embraced the modern movement with a minimal and functional
aesthetic and Futura really hit the mark. It’s a beautiful typeface, here’s one of
its specimens and it appears to have perfect geometry and a completely
perfect monolinear structure, but it’s really a brilliant illusion that was
created by Renner. There’s a lot of adjustments happening here, including the
‘O’s are actually elliptical, but that allows your eyes to perceive them as
perfect circles. So it’s a very beautiful typeface that was drawn with great
precision and is still used extensively today. So as technology continues to
change and influence culture and the way our society operates it eventually has
an effect on the typographic industry itself. So we’ve seen at this point
industrialization and machinery incorporating itself into all different
kinds of industries and advancing them and making them more efficient, but up to
this point we haven’t seen that in typography. At this point we are still
seeing type either made in wood or in metal in the processes that I showed in
the last lecture with matrices and punches and pouring into molds. We’re
also still seeing type set by hand in some kind of a lock up where each letter
is put individually to create words. And so eventually that efficiency and that
machinery hits the typographic industry because for magazines, newspapers, and
periodicals in particular there was really a need to advance and make a
quicker way to create this content. So we see the creation of the Monotype machine
and the Monotype machine is two machines that work in conjunction. This is the
casting unit that would actually cast hot metal type. So there are matrices and
molds that exist within this machine and it works in conjunction with the
keyboard unit where the operator would actually enter the text that’s necessary.
So there’s multiple keyboards here, those controlled
uppercase, lowercase, small caps, things like that and then this would actually
produce a piece of perforated tape that would be put into the casting machine
and it would actually cast those words in the metal type. So ultimately you
would get letters like this, and they would come out a line at a time, but
they weren’t connected, they’re individual letters. So this made things much more
efficient. For one there is no longer a need to worry about having the right
amount of letters or type, you could just create what you needed at any given time.
It also set the type together so you’re able to kind of group it and move it and
use it all at once which really refrained from you having to find a letter and put
it where it went. It was already being set correctly in the way that it was
supposed to be read. So this has huge advantages, and we saw this really take
off, this really starts to dominate the typography industry, and it appears
around the late 1800s. Its competitor is another machine called the Linotype.
The Linotype was very much the same as the Monotype in that a cast hot metal
type, but there was one considerable difference. One, you’ll notice that it’s
one machine. The keyboard actually exists within the casting unit, but the second
thing was that it actually made an entire line of type. So that’s where the
name of the machine comes from. Linotype, line of type. So we actually have the
ability to cast an entire line in one piece of metal, and this was really
advantageous because now that typography setting has become so much
more efficient with the creation of these hot metal setting machines, we no
longer are worried about mistakes and wanting to be able to replace one letter. It’s
actually more efficient to replace an entire line if needed because we can
create them so quickly. And there’s an advantage here because there’s fewer
small pieces and it makes it much simpler to set these things together so
the Linotype machine definitely started to dominate the market and
continued to push the hot metal typesetting era. And this would become the way that
typography was made predominantly for the next 80 to 100 years. Then we
have Hermann Zapf, he was a German typographer and master calligrapher. He
was really known for his technical expertise, and again he was a very very
gifted and knowledgeable calligrapher. He’s known for some typefaces that
are still used today like Palatino and Optima as well as this typeface Melior
that came out in 1952. It’s built on a square-circle construction method, and it
has this rounded outside but slightly square inside. It’s classified as a
transitional serif although it is often said to be one of the more difficult
typefaces to classify. Then we have another technological advancement, we
have the creation of typewriters. Typewriters actually were initially
brought onto the scene in the 1800s, and they were predominantly used for
expediting typesetting. For filling out invoices and forms with variable data,
but what’s really important about this particular typewriter is, this is the IBM
Selectric. It came out in 1961 and it had a large innovation that really affected
typography, and that is that it no longer had letters on individual arms that
would clack when you hit the buttons. So if you’ve seen a historical typewriter each
letter is on its own arm and it hits the paper as you click the corresponding
letter. The Selectric actually had a typewriter ball, so there was a ball that
could move and hit the paper in the same fashion that those arms did, but the
difference was that there were no longer individual metal pieces for all of the
different letters and characters. There was actually just one ball, and one of
the side effects of this is that IBM actually created balls with different
typefaces. So you could actually buy a different font and swap it out in your
Selectric and change to that font and this is really important I think in the
study of typography because this is really the first time that the user has
the ability to change the typeface. Up until this point you were stuck with
whatever typeface was in the typewriter, whatever typeface the document you
received was printed in. This is the first time that the user actually has
choice in what typeface they use. Although it was a very limited amount of
choices, this is really the beginning of that process. So if you imagine that you
have so many typeface choices when you’re in Microsoft Word or InDesign or
illustrator, you know this is really the first time that there’s any kind of
choice at all and that was really I think big for the user to have input or
choice in what kind of typeface they were using for their work. Then we have
Wim Crouwel, he’s from the Netherlands and worked at Total Design. He did a lot
of groundbreaking and innovative work, and was sometimes referenced to as gridnik and that was really for his love of grids and his ability to use grids in
really creative ways. And this is a piece of typography that he designed in 1967,
it’s called neu alphabet and it was actually designed to help bridge the gap
on the limitations of early photographic lettering. So that’s something we’ll talk
about in a minute, but photographic lettering is the next technical
advancement in typography, but in the beginning stages it struggled to render
curved and diagonal shapes and so Wim really worked to create this typeface
that was built out of horizontal and vertical strokes with these 45-degree
angles so that it would really help to create clear typography
for photographic lettering. It’s also a great example of modular typography. We
see that coming back again, the stylistic look to these letters that are really
built from the modularity or the structure or system that’s behind the
way the letters are built. He did this again in 1968 for the Stedelijk Museum. He
did a lot of the Stedelijk’s work for a long period of time and this was a
typeface he created just for one particular exhibition. You’ll notice
right away that the grid is actually visible, so he chose to show the grid and
then on top of it he shows how the typography perfectly fits on the grid.
This is another interesting example of how grids and rationality start to
abstract typography and push where things are going. So we have photographic
lettering, so as I mentioned this is the next advancement and this really comes
with the development of photographic technology. So that starts to finally
affect typography because we start to realize that we can do away with the
metal. We can work with these films or screens that we shoot light through that
helps us create letters through a photographic process. So they start with
glass film but eventually they move to film that you’re seeing here which is
similar to photographic film it has a black background you’re seeing that blocks
light and then the white areas where the letters are allows light through. And
though this could be projected and it could change in size, and other
modifications could be made, and during this time there was one company that was
really the predominant leader in this technology and that was Photo-Lettering Inc., PLINC. And they had proprietary technology that was really special in
that it allowed them to not degrade their masters, but it also allowed for
more modifications to be made as the type was being drawn because during this
era an art director would call in with a headline of what they would want with
the typography. So they would spec the typeface, the relative size, and then the
words that they needed set. And then the letterer would actually create the
artwork that then will be photographed and included in the magazine or whatever
piece that they were working on. And one of the most important people in this is
Ed Benguiat, he’s an American typographer and he worked for PLINC and produced a
lot of their wonderful lettering. He’s particularly known for creating
lettering systems that had a lot of modifications. This is an example, this is
Benguiat Newlock, and what you’re seeing here is a photograph out of the Photo-Lettering book and what’s interesting about this is the way these letters are
locking together. Now the way these letters lock together really depends on
the word and the context of what the letters that are existing there. So this
is a great example of those modifications that I’m talking about. An Art Director would call them with this headline and then as the letters are
being projected Ed is then able to letter this and make adjustments to
create these interlocks where they make sense on the fly and then produce really
great typography that has a slightly more custom feel to it. And this was
something that was special about PLINC. The Photo Lettering collection is
now all owned by House Industries and they’ve slowly released it, there’s even
an app on your phone for it. And this is some of the typefaces that House
Industries released in honor of Ed Benguiat, so this is some of his work but
redone by House Industries. And this is Ed Roman and you can see some of that
playful flair that he was so known for. In 1984 the first Macintosh releases
and this really changed graphic design and typography, because for the first
time we have typefaces on screens, which is a totally different environment than
they’ve ever lived in up until this point. So suddenly there’s these low
resolution screens where rudimentary typefaces need to exist so they can
communicate with their audience. It also for the first time allowed us to create
typefaces on the computer and also graphics on the computer which is really
the basis of everything that we do today. And one
of the pioneers of this was Zuzana Licko. She lives and works in Oakland,
California and went to Berkeley. She is a phenomenal typographer and very much
known for a lot of her work that she did with Emigre which is the foundry that
she owns with her partner Rudy VanderLans. Here’s some of her early typefaces, these were created on early computers and
they’re pixel fonts. That’s how you’d refer to these today, but at the time these
were just fonts that were possible to be created on the computer. Because the
screens were at such low resolution, there was these enlarged pixel grids
that had to be adhered to, and so Zuzana created all of these different typefaces
that could work on the computer and then be output through printers and these
were then re-released in 2001 as the lo-res family and it’s really now a homage
or you know way to create a stylistic element that references those old pixel
fonts, but initially these were really created because they were just the first
fonts that were able to be produced at all on these low res computers. She
also founded a magazine called Emigre, she did this with Rudy VanderLans in
1984 and Emigre magazine was one of the most popular and influential
magazines of its time. It really influenced and pushed the deconstruction
and postmodern era of design. This is a very typical layout, you can see the
expressive typography, the interesting grid structure, the way that the images
are scattered across the page. This was very much quintessential Emigre style
and really helped fuel the work of the 90’s. She also did a lot of other very
beautiful typefaces, this is Filosofia which was released in 1996.
It’s her look at Bodoni, she really wanted to recreate Bodoni, but overcome
some of the legibility issues that existed when it works in small sizes. You
can also see here at the bottom the wonderful unicase version where she’s
mixing upper and lowercase letterforms which can be very useful for us in
branding and different type setting scenarios. This is Mrs. Eaves which was released also in 1996. It’s her interpretation of Baskerville. It has a low x-height and a wonderful warm
quality to it. It’s named after Sarah Eaves who was Baskerville’s housekeeper
and then second wife, and she actually took over
his business and prolonged his career by keeping his high standards and
continuing to release his work. We have Eric Spiekermann, he’s a German
typographer very much known for his work on the computer and his creation of the
Font Font foundry. This was one of the first foundries that helped independent
type designers get their typefaces released because at this point most of
the juggernauts of the type industry are the Linotypes and the Monotypes, so those
initially started as machines but eventually they evolved into being type
houses where they would sell the licenses that they had because they
owned the rights to so many of these classic incredible fonts. So they would
actually sell them in digital formats and then that grew them into the
juggernauts of the type industry. So Font Font was one of the first that actually
got on the scene and could help allow these independent small foundries to
sell their work. Here’s some of his typefaces: Meta, Officina Serif, Officina
Sans. He’s very much known for his work on FF Meta, it came out in 1991 and it
has a beautiful warm friendly quality. It’s also a very narrow sans-serif
typeface which gives it an ability to work in small spaces, and it’s very
much a humanist blend with a grotesque. And it’s also completely made on the
computer, it has a very warm but digital quality to it and it’s a font that you’ll still see used today although it was very widely
used in the 90’s and 2000’s. This is Scala and Scala Sans from Martin Majoor. It came out from 1991 to 1993, also through the Font Font foundry, and
it was an example of one of those mega families. During the 80’s and 90’s we start
to see a lot of corporate rebranding and companies really working on creating a
very consistent unified look and feel. And the typography industry really
responds with these large families that have a very consistent voice and style,
that allowed companies to really make one choice that can work in a lot of
different environments and Scala is a great example of that. It had a lot of
styles, weights, it had small caps, regular, bold, black. It had condensed
versions of it so it really could work in a lot of different scenarios, it was
one of the first mega families. Also there was Thesis and some of the
other families that came along in the same way, but their goal here was to make
one-stop shopping. A typeface that could really work across an incredibly
wide landscape. We also see things like this, this is Barry Deck’s Template Gothic
that was also released in 1991. It was released by Emigre and it’s really
based on those plastic stencils that you would use to create letterforms as a
kid, but what Barry Deck’s decided to do here is instead of keeping the
perfectness of those letters he’s incorporated the imperfections that
often happen when you’re using these stencils. So he’s purposefully keeping
these imperfections to create this narrative quality and it becomes more
expressive that way, and this was an extremely popular typeface through the
entire 90’s. It was often used in a lot of the work of David Carson and other
people who embraced postmodern deconstructed design, but it was really
about the expressive quality of letters. And we saw a lot of other typefaces
like this where it was more about what they felt like and said maybe then how
well they were constructed or designed. Even in its digital form type is still
evolving the font files that contain typefaces have become much more
sophisticated allowing for new features, further compatibility, and an increased
number of characters allowed. Technology and coding languages like Python have
become increasingly more integrated and a part of creating typefaces. So
historically when we had digital type we had PostScript fonts and TrueType fonts
and not all of the fonts worked on PC’s and Mac’s. And eventually we evolved into OpenType which has allowed for a lot of this functionality to happen and it continues
to be improved, and that’s really allowed a lot of alternate glyphs to be included, it
increased the character count, it also has compatibility on both platforms. So
we see this first from Eric van Blokland. He created a typeface, actually all the
way in 1989, called Beowulf. And it was the first time that code was included in
a font file that would manipulate letterforms. And what you’re seeing here is
that as you type these letters there’s an algorithm that is actually changing
where the points of the letter exist. So at the very top you’ll see the lightest
weight, although there’s no weight shifting here, it just has the least
amount of degradation. So if you look on the edges you’ll see the different
colors that are showing you the different outlines. Every time you type with this font it actually randomly changes where the
exterior points exist. So if we go down one more you’re seeing the next level of
degradation which makes it more obvious. You can see how different each of these
letterforms, that every time you type a letter it’s randomly changing the
placement of the exterior points and that really goes all the way to the
bottom weight which is practically illegible. But it really shows the
concept of how coding can be incorporated into font files to really
change the way that typefaces work. We saw a lot of problem solving done by
Jonathan Hoefler and Tobias Frere-Jones. This doesn’t mean it was always
involving coding, but they very frequently are using type and pushing
the boundaries of type technology to really solve complex problems that
designers have. They used to run a foundry together called Hoefler and Frere-Jones, although they have split and most of it is now run through Hoefler. This is
one of their typefaces, Knockout. It was originally designed for Sports
Illustrated and it references old American wood type. It has a loose family,
but there’s a nice relationship between all of the letterforms. It comes in nine
widths which you see at the top and then six weights which you see at the bottom,
and what’s wonderful about this typeface is it creates a lot of flexibility for
editorial designers to fit words in different spaces. It’s like this example
at the top you can see that we’re using different styles, so it more extended and
a less extended but of the same weight so that these letters actually lock up left
to right. So by using that extended weight for “is key”, it really allows the letters
to really lock up into this tight space. The other thing that can be useful with
this font, is that we have all of the different styles and widths in all these
different weights so you can actually change the weight of a word within a
headline or a piece of text and still allow it to maintain that same width. They
also created things like this. This is the Proteus project, which is another one
that solves an editorial problem. Each of these four typefaces are a different
style, but they all are built on the same metrics which means that you can
interchange these words or letters and they will be the same width. You could
actually even type a word where certain letters were in each of these four fonts
and they would actually still look correct, and this is really useful because potentially if you set a headline in a magazine and you had it
fit perfectly and you wanted to change the type style, you could easily change
to one of these other styles and it wouldn’t affect the width or the
placement of the headline. So here’s Ziggurat which is the heavy
slab serif from the Proteus project. Here’s Gotham which was released in 2000,
it was originally commissioned by GQ Magazine. It was developed based on
inspiration of signage in New York City, particularly the Port Authority Bus
Terminal sign. It was also very famously used in both of Obama’s presidential
campaigns. This is Archer, it was originally designed in 2003 for Martha
Stewart Living Magazine. So there’s an interesting relationship between
editorial publications and typefaces. Often times art directors when they’re
redesigning a magazine or a newspaper can’t find a typeface that has the voice
or the quality that they’re looking for. So they’ll typically write a brief and
hire a type designer to create specific typefaces, and this is a great example of
that. You know this is a really sweet and structured typeface that was really
perfect for Martha Stewart Living. They couldn’t find something that had this
quality and through the brief they were able to create something that’s really
unique. And for Archer it was initially licensed to Martha Stewart
Living and they were able to use it exclusively, but after a period of time,
that exclusivity expired and they were able to retool the typeface and release
it to the general public. So sometimes these typefaces never expire there’s a
permanent license of exclusivity for the user but often times these typefaces have
a window of exclusivity, and then the typefaces are eventually released to the
general public which created this really interesting flow between Editorial
Design and then Graphic Design. Then we have House Industries which is in Yorklyn, Delaware. It’s run by Ken Barber, Rich Roat, and Andy Cruz. And they are the
owners of Photo-Lettering, we talked about that earlier, but they also create
a plethora of incredible typefaces. Many of them very vintage and retro styled,
and all of them extremely high quality. They make some of the most high quality
display typefaces that you can find. Here’s an example of Yorklyn Stencil,
this is a recent typeface they released. They often also have the most incredible
promotional materials, and they create a lot of objects oriented around their
typefaces. And it’s created a lot of notoriety for them because they’re able to brand and apply their typefaces in
interesting ways that attract their audience. Here’s a photo of an exhibition
they had at the Henry Ford Museum for Innovation, and it was featuring all of
their work. You’re seeing here some of the work from their Eames typeface. So
they created a series of typefaces related to the legacy of the Eames,
one of them is based on Ray Eames handwriting, but the others are based on
other artifacts and things that they found and that’s a very typical process
for House Industries. They don’t have families in the typical way that we
think of them. Often times the families are thematically related instead of weight.
So instead of just having a bold, light, regular, of the same style there’s
different actual faces that reference different parts of a potential topic.
Here’s one of their most famous releases, this is Neutraface which was designed by
Christian Schwartz, it came out in 2002. It’s based on Richard Neutra’s signage
that was done for his buildings. He’s a modernist architect, that worked
in California and the western United States. It’s really notable for its
lowered crossbar you can see in the ‘E’, the ‘F’, the ‘H’, the ‘R’. It makes it very
iconic and easy to identify, it’s also extremely ubiquitous. You’ll see this
typeface everywhere, extremely popular. Here’s some of the process behind it,
this is an image of their book “The Process is the Inspiration”. This is a
spread about Neutraface and again you can see that way that they produce and
sell these typefaces. This typeface was actually eventually turned into a slab
serif which you see in the upper right on that pillow. Snd then the lower is
actually a chair that they made. A boomerang chair that they built and sold
to promote this typeface. In the bottom they even partnered with Heath Ceramics
and created Neutraface house numbers that you see there in 9, 2, 3. So they’re
really interesting, they’re very much about building products. They do a lot of
collaborations with different companies and the core of it is always typography.
This is their Las Vegas Fabulous, this is another great example of them creating a
type family based on a theme. There are not different weights of this script,
there are just other typefaces that reference other wonderful lettering that
we often see in Las Vegas on the strip and in all the various casinos. This is
Ed Interlocked, this is actually a typeface that’s based on the font we
saw earlier in the Photo-Lettering section the Newlock Condensed. So this is a typeface based on Ed Benguiat’s work and it’s
an incredible use of technology in a typeface. There’s actually an incredible
amount of coding and ligatures that go behind this that allow you to type this
typeface out, and have it actually create all of these connections. So there’s
1,100 ligatures and as you type it automatically changes to the correct
ones that it needs. You’ll notice that it always prefers to go like: top, bottom, top,
bottom, top, bottom, so that it creates a really natural rhythm the way that these
connections happen. This was coded by Tal Leming who’s an incredible typographer
and someone who is very well versed in the coding and algorithms behind
typefaces that really help advance and create this kind of look. Then we have
Underwear, it was founded by three people who all went to KABK, which is the TypeMedia program in Holland. It is one of the top and best design schools for
studying type design. Another notable school is in Reading, England, the
University of Reading. But both of these schools produce some of the best
typographers and have some of the best teaching methods and have really pushed
and helped advance the typographic industry. They’ve also helped advance
type education as a lot of their information has disseminated around the
world. But this is their typeface Dolly it was released in 2001. It is based on Dutch text
typography, it has a really nice calligraphic feel. It’s a wonderful
typeface because it works well at small sizes and is very readable, but when
blown up it has this warmth and this friendly quality that makes it really
special. This is Bello, which was released in 2004.
It’s a script based on brush lettering. And this is Liza, which was released in
2009, which is another interesting typeface that uses OpenType technology
to create interesting letters. So there’s an incredible amount of alternates
inside this typeface that help refrain from more than one letter being repeated.
If you look through and find the ‘a’s and ‘o’s and ‘e’s you’ll notice that each of
them are slightly different, which helps emulate handwriting. So it’s interesting
as this technology has evolved there’s a desire to emulate lettering or
handwriting rather than actually looking like a typeface. There’s actually a
desire to almost hide the quality of it being a typeface by not having all
the letterforms be identical, and that’s particularly useful in script faces like
this. The technology was pushed even further in this one where there’s
actually an algorithm inside of the code that simulates when the pen will run out
of ink. So if you look at the first line, “lorem ipsum dolor” and you see the ‘r’ in
“dolor” you’ll notice that it doesn’t quite connect. And that’s referencing the
point where you would have had to refill your pen with ink to go ahead and
continue to write, so again there’s this desire to kind of go back and make these
typefaces even more like handwriting or lettering. As interest in typography
grows and access to knowledge, tools, and resources increases the industry is
starting to spread further across the globe. This has led to a proliferation of
type designers and typefaces, but also led to advancements in non-latin
typography. So as we talked about there were these two juggernaut schools that
still exist and still create some of the best type designers out there, but now
there’s also other schools that have sprung up and have taught these methods.
There’s other schools that teach these methods, but for other languages. There’s
also an ability to create better non-latin typefaces because the
technology allows for more characters and alternates that makes it easier to
create complicated scripts that are not using Latin letterforms. The first is
KLIM which is owned by Kris Sowersby. This is out of New Zealand, and he’s
someone who has been able to create an incredible amount of high quality
typefaces from a country that historically doesn’t have a long type
history. This is National which is a grotesque that he released in 2007, to
great acclaim. It was used by a handful of publications, it was really built from
the inspiration of grotesque typefaces from Europe. This is Pitch
which was a font that was released in 2012. It’s based on typewriters and has a
particularly interesting ball terminal feel to it, but due to the Internet and
the proliferation of this education and technology Kris is able to have an
incredible typographic career when living in an area of the world that maybe historically would not have had a very high profile typographer. We also have
Shiva Nallaperumal, who’s an Indian typographer who creates Indian typefaces,
but he also creates interesting latin typefaces that i’m
actually going to show. The first is one that is based on Cufic calligraphy,
which is the oldest form of arabic script. And it’s very interesting because
it’s often used in decorative motifs as you can see here, and what’s fascinating
is that there’s an interesting balance here between black and white. There’s a
monolinear structure, it’s almost maze like in its appearance, but also these
letterforms have to fit into these specific shapes. So not only do they have
to fit in these shapes, but they also have to be readable. So there’s this
incredible ability to morph and fit into these different areas and not only
become this beautiful decorative element, but something that’s actually readable
for the viewer. So he thought is there a possibility that I could create this
using Latin letterforms, and that really led to the creation of Calcula, which is
a typeface that he released through Typotheque. And you can see here that same
idea, that beautiful balance of positive and negative space that’s being used
here. That monolinear negative space that creates that really interesting
effect. He also pushed it further by creating shaded and inline versions that
create even more interest. But he was able to really solve this by working
with Tal Leming again and using a lot of that technology that we looked at in Ed
Interlock. So here there’s a series of alternates that are being used, and as
the letterforms are being typed it knows what combinations of letters need
to fit into what way. So you can see here if it’s an ‘F’ then the ‘E’ is typed the ‘E’ is
going to be in this lower location. Where if an ‘L’ is typed the ‘E’ is going to be in
this upper larger location, and that really allows it to create that effect
and allows it to interlock in that special way each time. And then when I
first saw this typeface I was also shocked and amazed by the patterns that
it could create. This was definitely an afterthought, but it’s an amazing one.
These beautiful positive negative space also allow themselves to be pushed
together and blend into these gorgeous patterns, and then even when they’re put
on paths they can create these circular almost mandala like shapes. So really
interesting other aspect that comes from this typeface. Here’s some of Shiva’s
other western typefaces. Here’s Orwellian, a typeface that he
released through Lost Type. It’s a reverse stress Italian style slab serif.
And then Enemy which is an interesting edgy stencil font that was also released
through Lost Type. Then we have Kristyan Sarkis. He is graduate of the type media program at KABK and he’s an expert on Arabic
typography. He actually now teaches at KABK in the type media program, and he also
co-founded Typotheque Arabic in 2013, which is really pushing where Arabic
typography is going. They’re really working to create all of these high
quality Arabic typefaces that are based off of the library of Typotheque.
Because it’s really important that we have people who are speaking these
languages and know these languages intimately to create them. Because
historically these typefaces were created by people who it’s not their
mother tongue and they maybe do not know the nuances and the details of them and
often times these typefaces aren’t always completely accurate. In addition, a lot of
these languages have really a dearth of type. There’s really a very low number
of typefaces that exist, which creates a limited amount of choices and so it’s
also interesting for us to look at expanding these areas and looking at the
boundaries of how we can create new styles of these different languages.
Again OpenType has allowed this to work too because the technology exists to
really create these complex scripts in digital typefaces. It’s allowing us to
really push the boundaries and create more and more of it, so this combination
of the democratization of the education, the increase in the technology, and the
spread of the interest around the globe is really going to increase the amount
of high-quality typefaces that exist for all of these languages. Which is really
important, not only for preservation of these languages and to create choices
for them, but also for the graphic design communities within each of these regions
because right now they have a very small number of typefaces they can choose from
in some places, and by opening that it’ll also increase interesting graphic design
and a lot for more high quality graphic design, and allow for more voices to be
heard in these different corners of the globe. So it’s not that there isn’t
advancement happening in Western or Latin typography, there’s amazing things
happening. But right now, I think the most interesting thing that’s happening is
this push for more foreign language typefaces, and this interest in really
preserving language and creating really authentic high quality fonts that can
really work for all of these different languages that exist around the globe.

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